
Timeinterleaved Analogtodigital Converters (TIADCs,
TIADCs, ti adcs)
I
am working now for more than 10 years on digital calibration algorithms
for timeinterleaved ADCs. If you are interested in collaborations
please contact me.
The idea of a timeinterleaved ADC (TIADC) is to use a system of M
parallel channel ADCs, which alternately take samples (timeinterleaved
sampling). Thereby, the sampling frequency of one channel does not need
to fulfill the Nyquist criterion; however, when in the digital domain
all samples are merged into one output sequence the overall sampling
frequency fulfills the Nyquist criterion. Therefore, sampling with an
ideal timeinterleaved ADC with M channels is equivalent to sampling
with an ideal ADC with an M times higher sampling rate. The channels of
a timeinterleaved ADC can be realized in different converter
technologies to achieve for example highrate and lowpower ADCs or
highrate and highresolution ADCs.
The typical structure of a timeinterleaved ADC is shown in the picture
below. We see the analog input signal xa(t), the M timeinterleaved
parallel channels, and the multiplexer (MUX) to combine the digital
outputs of the channels. The conversion rate of the overall system
increases by the number of channels M. It should be noticed that each
channel has to deal with the entire analog input signal xa(t), and,
therefore, the sampleandholds in each channel have to resolve the
full input signal bandwidth.
Review papers
 Christian Vogel, Matthias Hotz, Shahzad Saleem, Katharina
Hausmair, Michael Soudan,
A Review on LowComplexity Structures and
Algorithms for the Correction of Mismatch Errors in TimeInterleaved
ADCs,
2012 IEEE 10th International New Circuits and Systems Conference
(NEWCAS), Montréal (Canada), 1720 June 2012, pp. 349352 (invited)
[abstr][pdf]
 Christian Vogel,
A
Signal Processing View on Timeinterleaved ADCs,
Analog
Circuit Design, by Arthur H. M. Van Roermund, Herman Casier,
Michiel Steyaert (eds.), Springer, 2010, ISBN: 9789048130825
[abstr][bib][Google
fulltext preview]
 Christian Vogel and Hakan Johansson,
TimeInterleaved
AnalogtoDigital Converters: Status and Future Directions,
Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and
Systems (ISCAS 2006), Kos (Greece), 2124 May 2006, pp. 33863389 (invited)
[abstr][bib][pdf]
PhD Thesis
Mismatch compensation
The following papers deal with
the identification and commpensation, .i.e., calibration, of mismatches in timeinterleaved
ADCs. As the calibration with special input signals is solved, the papers focus on blind calibration methods.
 Shazad Saleem, Christian Vogel
Adaptive
Blind Background Calibration of PolynomialRepresented Frequency
Response Mismatches in a TwoChannel TimeInterleaved ADC,
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, Vol.58,
Issue 6, pp. 13001310, June 2011
[abstr][pdf]
 Shahzad Saleem, Christian Vogel
On
Blind Identification of Gain and Timing Mismatches in TimeInterleaved
AnalogtoDigital Converters,
Proceedings of 33rd International Conference on Telecommunications and
Signal Processing (TSP 2010), Baden/Vienna (Austria), 1720 August
2010, pp. 151  155
[pdf]
 Shahzad Saleem, Christian Vogel,
Adaptive Compensation
of Frequency Response Mismatches in HighResolution TimeInterleaved
ADCs using a LowResolution ADC and a TimeVarying Filter,
Proceedings
of the 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS
2010), Paris (France), 30 May  2 June 2010, pp. 561564
[abstr][pdf]
 Christian Vogel, Shahzad Saleem, and Stefan Mendel,
Adaptive
Blind Compensation of Gain and Timing Mismatches in MChannel
TimeInterleaved ADCs,
Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Electronics,
Circuits and Systems (ICECS 2008), St. Julians (Malta), 13 September
2008, pp. 4952
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Shahzad Saleem and Christian Vogel,
LMSBased
Identification and Compensation of Timing Mismatches in a TwoChannel
TimeInterleaved AnalogtoDigital Converter,
Proceedings of the IEEE Norchip Conference 2007, Aalborg (Denmark),
1920 November 2007
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Christian Vogel,
A
Frequency Domain Method for Blind Identification of Timing Mismatches
in TimeInterleaved ADCs,
Proceedings of the IEEE Norchip Conference 2006, Linköping (Sweden),
2021 November 2006, pp. 4548
[abstr][bib][pdf]
Compensation structures
The following papers deal with
lowcomplexity structures for timeinterelaved ADCs. As most of the
time the digital signal should be processed in realtime, we need
flexible filter structures and lowcomplexity algorithms. These
structures and algorithms build the basis for identification and
calibration algorithms.
 Matthias Hotz, Christian Vogel,
Block Processing with Iterative Correction Filters for TimeInterleaved ADCs,
Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Florence (Italy), 49 May 2014, pp. 4961–4965.
[pdf]
 Michael Soudan, Christian Vogel,
Correction Structures for Linear Weakly
TimeVarying Systems,
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 2075 –2084, September 2012
[abstr]
[pdf]
 Michael Soudan and Christian Vogel
Low
Complexity LeastSquares Filter Design for the Correction of Linear
Timevarying Systems,
Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Circuit Theory and
Design (ECCTD 2011), Linköping (Sweden), 2931 August 2011, pp. 690693
[pdf]
 Michael Soudan and Christian Vogel
On
the Correction of Linear Timevarying Systems by Means of Timevarying
FIR Filters,
Proceedings of the 54th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems
(MWSCAS 2011), Seoul (Korea), 710 August 2011
[pdf]
 Christian Vogel and Stefan Mendel,
A
Flexible and Scalable Structure to Compensate Frequency Response
Mismatches in TimeInterleaved ADCs,
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, Vol.56,
Issue 11, pp. 24632475, November 2009
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Stefan Tertinek and Christian Vogel,
Reconstruction
of Nonuniformly Sampled Bandlimited Signals Using a
DifferentiatorMultiplier Cascade,
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, Vol.55,
Issue 8, pp. 22732286, September 2008
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Stefan Tertinek and Christian Vogel,
Reconstruction
of TwoPeriodic Nonuniformly Sampled Bandlimited Signals Using a
DiscreteTime Differentiator and a TimeVarying Multiplier,
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, Vol.54,
Issue 7, pp. 616620, July 2007
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Stefan Mendel and Christian Vogel,
On
the Compensation of Magnitude Response Mismatches in Mchannel
Timeinterleaved ADCs,
Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and
Systems (ISCAS 2007), New Orleans (USA), 2730 May 2007, pp. 33753378
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Stefan Mendel and Christian Vogel,
A
Compensation Method for Magnitude Response Mismatches in TwoChannel
TimeInterleaved AnalogtoDigital Converters,
Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Conference on Electronics,
Circuits and Systems (ICECS 2006), Nice (France), 1013 December 2006,
pp. 712715
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Christian Vogel, Dieter Draxelmayr, and Gernot Kubin,
Spectral
Shaping of Timing Mismatches in TimeInterleaved ADCs,
Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and
Systems (ISCAS 2005), Kobe (Japan), 2326 May 2005, pp. 13941397
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Christian Vogel, Viktoria Pammer, and Gernot Kubin,
A
Novel Channel Randomization Method for TimeInterleaved ADCs,
Proceedings of the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology
Conference (IMTC 2005), Ottawa (Canada), Vol.1, 1719 May 2005, pp.
150155
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Christian Vogel, Dieter Draxelmayr, and Franz
Kuttner,
Compensation
of Timing Mismatches in TimeInterleaved AnalogtoDigital Converters
through Transfer Characteristics Tuning,
Proceedings of the 2004 47th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems
(MWSCAS 2004), Hiroshima (Japan), 2528 July 2004, Vol. I, pp. 341344
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Christian Vogel and Gernot Kubin,
Analysis
and Compensation of Nonlinearity Mismatches in TimeInterleaved ADC
Arrays,
Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and
Systems (ISCAS 2004), Vancouver (Canada), 2326 May 2004, Vol. I, pp.
593596
[abstr][bib][pdf]
Mismatch analysis
These papers adress typical mismatch errors
such as gain, offset, time offset, linearity, and frequency mismatches
in timeinterleaved ADCs.
 Christian Vogel,
The
Impact of Combined Channel Mismatch Effects in Timeinterleaved ADCs,
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol.55, Issue 1,
pp. 415427, Feb. 2005
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Christian Vogel and Gernot Kubin,
Modeling
of Timeinterleaved ADCs with Nonlinear Hybrid Filter Banks,
AEÜ  International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 59,
Issue 5, pp. 288296, July 2005
[abstr][bib][pdf][HTML]
 Christian Vogel and Gernot Kubin,
TimeInterleaved
ADCs in the Context of Hybrid Filter Banks,
Proceedings of the 2004 URSI International Symposium on Signals,
Systems, and Electronics (ISSSE 2004), Linz (Austria), 1013 Aug. 2004,
pp. 214217, ISBN:3950149147
[bib][pdf]
 Christian Vogel and Gernot Kubin,
Analysis
and Compensation of Nonlinearity Mismatches in TimeInterleaved ADC
Arrays,
Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and
Systems (ISCAS 2004), Vancouver (Canada), 2326 May 2004, Vol. I, pp.
593596
[abstr][bib][pdf]
 Christian Vogel and Heinz Koeppl,
Behavioral
Modeling of TimeInterleaved ADCs using MATLAB,
Proceedings of the Austrochip 2003, Linz (Austria), Oct. 2003, pp.
4548
[bib][pdf]
 Christian Vogel,
Comprehensive
Error Analysis of Combined Channel Mismatch Effects in TimeInterleaved
ADCs,
Proceedings of the 20th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology
Conference, (IMTC '03), Vail (USA), Vol.1, 2022 May 2003, pp. 733738
[abstr][bib][pdf]
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